Well, it's October, and the World Series is under way. Good time to talk baseball I'd say. So here's a blast from my own past on the subject: Simpson's Paradox and Major Leagues Baseball's Hall of Fame.1
MUSINGS - REVELATIONS - REVIEWS
One of the most important aspects of good research is proper study design; no type or amount of statistical analysis can make up for a poorly designed study. In longitudinal research one of the most important aspects of study design is making sure that the temporal sequence of events is understood and recorded correctly. Errors in this arena can lead to misclassification of exposure time and differential follow-up between comparison groups. It is therefore crucial to understand time at risk in studies and correctly and fairly apply rules of follow-up to study subjects.
As we saw in Part II of this three part series, there is something wrong with Figure 4 in Plioplys et al. 1998.1 As a matter of fact, there is something wrong with all of the figures in the study, though it is a bit more difficult in some cases to confirm this. If the reader should like to work out the details for another, Figure 2 is a fairly easy place to start. In Figure 4, as we have seen, data that should apparently run out by age 11 years continues all the way to age 34 years. Did the authors create these curves out of whole cloth?